Polydactyly in neighboring countries and Afghanistan by Dr. Tafseera Hashemi

Updated: Sep 24, 2019

Dr. Tafseera Hashemi

Faculty of biology, Kabul University


Abstract

Introduction: Polydactyly means having an extra finger or fingers on hand is one of the most common congenital anomalies, and there are about one in every 1000 people in one person. Excessive fingers showing an uncomplicated state can take several forms: a small bump next to the hand. Or a finger that is wrapped at the end and has two nails. Or with an extra finger that hangs with a thin base near the hand.


Method: In this research by taking samples from Kabul city, using valid resources and websites many Data and new information are collected relating to the topic of this article. Cases of polydactyly in India, Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan during several years have been analyzed.


Results: Multiple fingerprints are a universal complication and account for approximately 1 in every 1,000 people around the world. The number of people affected is higher in Asian and African countries. In Pakistan in the state of Lahore, there have been 162 events in Pakistan in 2015 and 154 events in Ceestan City of Iran, and 178 in India. It should also be said that the few new cases in India are relatively high, especially with their little finger


Conclusion: From all these results we can easily conclude that, polydactyly can be hereditary and non-hereditary. The cause of disease is a gene called Sonic hedgehog , which located on chromosome 7 deletion of enhancers in this gene cause to change the concentration of SHH protein then cause polydactyly. Sometimes polydactyly and syndactyly are in same person.


Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of the maladaptive disorder and its events in neighboring countries, and to inform people about the causes of this complication and the necessary measures to prevent it from spreading. Because of the high incidence of this disease in the countries of the region, especially Iran, India and Pakistan, recorded every year, the same climatic conditions and similar situations in the life of the people of Afghanistan are also at the risk of further exposure in our country, and if people are aware of this disease and its causes, The incidence of complications may be greater and faster as a result of inbreeding marriages and failure to observe important points during the delivery of mothers.

In this research, authoritative scientific sources and authoritative internet sites have gathered new information on the subject and its events in neighboring countries and several polydactyl have been explored in Pakistan Iran, India and Afghanistan in the past few years


Results: Multiple fingerprints are a universal complication and account for approximately 1 in every 1,000 people around the world. The number of people affected is higher in Asian and African countries. In Pakistan in the state of Lahore, there have been 162 events in Pakistan in 2015 and 154 events in Ceestan City of Iran, and 178 in India. It should also be said that the few new cases in India are relatively high, especially with their little finger


General Conclusion: The results of the multi-finger review suggest that there are several cases of polydactyly in Iran, Pakistan, India and Afghanistan. We need to be aware of the causes, the means of transmission, and the factors that drive the transmission of this disease. A contributing factor in the transmission of this disease is inherited causes (inbreeding marriages) and non-hereditary causes such as getting radius, drugs, drugs without doctor's advice, and in general environmental factors


Introduction:

Polydactyly is a congenital condition that can be created in various forms in the hands or feet. Even occasionally, polydactyly appears simultaneously with polydactyly. An individual can have this problem only in the hands or feet or simultaneously in his hands and feet(Peter D.T., 2017).

In terms of the position of the extra finger, it appears on the side of the small finger, but it can also be on the side of the thumb. Rarely, the finger is placed between the middle fingers.

There are several different forms of human polydactyly, but the trait is usually caused by a dominant allele. Occasionally, people po'-'"'' the allele for polydactyly (as evidenced by the fact that their children inherit the polydactyly) but nevertheless have a normal number of fingers and toes. In these cases, the gene for polydactyly is not fully penetrant. Penetrance is defined as the percentage of individual organisn1s having a particular genotype that "'Press the expected phenotype. For exan1ple, if \'/e exan1ined 42 people having an allele for polydactyly and found that only 38 of them were polydactyl (Benjamin A, pierce, 2015).

The extra finger may be just one extra skin next to the hand. It may have a bone. It may have a bundle or a few bundles or even bone attached to the palms of your hand. Sometimes a finger at the end takes the shape of a twig and turns into two fingers. Polydactyly or extra finger can appear either in the hand or even in the legs. Even on both hands and on both feet.

An extra finger in hand or one hand with a normal appearance with a thumb and five other fingers (six fingers) or one hand with an unusual appearance that appears to be understood with a glance that the person is polydactyl.

At the time of the embryo, the hand first has the shape of a wrestling parachute, then the breeches are formed at the ends and the fingers are separated. Sometimes your fingers do not properly disassemble, and as a result, a hand is formed that has two or more fingers connected to it, which is called syndactyly or sticky fingers

In some cases, more than four gaps are created at the end of the hand, resulting in more than five fingers being called polydactyly. Occasionally, several fingers and fingers coincide

Polydactyly or multi-finger is sometimes inherited, but in most cases it is created automatically without the presence of this trait. Many times, the number of fingers or legs together with other hereditary disorders, such as blood or heart disease, is one place. Therefore, the child should be examined by a specialist doctor with these problems(Nurmi, Deborah, 2006).

In 1980, gene was named "shh" in the Drosophila Melanogaster, who was responsible for determining the segments in the insect.

gene is responsible for forming fingers in the back of the foot. Sonic hedgehog (SHH) Fingerprint gene There is a front of the hand and it controls the formation of finger.

The mutation occurs in the non- coding region, of this gene, regulator region, that is located far from the coding area(Anthony Griffiths, 2015)..

The mutations in the gene shh enhancers cause the gene to fail.

Consequently, the concentration of the SHH protein changes and causes the formation of additional fingers.

Enhancers located a mega-base away from the SHH gene, which controls the activity of the gene, and in the event of a mutation, the non-coding region of gene polydactyly will occur. Mutation in Shh Enhancers Responsible for the Occurrence of extra Fingers.

point mutations cause ectopic activation of SHH in the limb by an, as yet,

unknown mechanism. This regulatory element, known as the SRE, is located in the intron of another gene, LMBR1. Moreover, there are several other genes mapping between the SRE and SHH, but these do not come under the influence of the

SRE. So we must be aware of a situation where an SNP might map in the intron of one gene, whilst exerting its effects on another gene that may map hundreds or even thousands of kilobases away (Alan Wright, Nicholas Hastie, 2007).

If shh Enhancers are removed from the bud or tip of the finger due to the quenching, the shh protein is deactivated, no fingers are formed. Concentration of protein changes when it changes the Jane regulator. The concentration of shh protein in the region of the fingernail increases, causing several fingers. The regulator area has 400bp and is available in all vertebrates. A mutation occurs in the area of the cis-acting regulatory elements of Gene. The non-coding region of DNA regulates the transcription of adjacent gins. The shape of this region changes the transcriptional process

Whenever it occurs in the area of the coding of the gene, the person experiences a completely different state, the Holoprosencephaly, where the size of the brain is consumed and the cancer is affected

Polydactyly is an Autosomal disease that is caused by the dominant Allele of a Gene above the chromosome 7. It is called SHH gene, which produces SHH protein.

Polydactyly have been seen in the vertebrates, such as pans, rabbits, chickens, mice and other furs.

Treating these uncomfortable cases is done by surgery and removing extra fingers. When this extra finger is on the side of the thumb, usually the best time for surgery and removing it is one and half years old. The surgery should not be performed after 5 years of age. When the finger is too short on the side of the finger, it is best to be surgically excised at about one year of age and when the extra finger is in the middle of the other fingers, surgery should be performed at the age of six months. Closing a finger with a thread to remove may cause severe bleeding and a dangerous action. The best way to remove extra patches is through surgery and by the doctor

In Afghanistan, a large number of people think Macrodactyly is a multi-finger variant, while this is a misconception. A large, congenital fingernail is a hereditary infection in which the fingers of one finger, especially the skin, fat, and nerves, have grown excessively, causing a finger or a handful of fingers to be larger than normal. The middle finger size also includes both hard and hard tissue and soft finger fusion. In this disease, larger fingers or fingers may be larger than other fingers, but their growth rate is similar to other fingers. In some cases, the uncomplicated finger is not only bigger than others, but also the rate of growth is more than the other fingers, the size difference with other fingers is increasing

The disease is more likely to be seen in the hands, with legs and legs seen in 90% of the extra patches in one hand or one leg. But it can also be seen in two hands or two legs. 70% of cases are seen on more than one finger

Macrodactyly treatment is an operation and surgery is a complicated operation because surgery should be performed on various tissues and layers, such as skin, muscle, pelvis, nerve and bone

Different surgical procedures are being performed for this disease. One of them is removing excess fats and removing the skin and then replacing the skin removed from the skin that has been removed from the body. This is done in a few steps and within three months

In some cases, one or two enlarged limbs may be cut to allow the fingers to fit longer, and in other cases, the doctor may have to cut off all the raised fingers


Purpose: The first objective of this research is to investigate the importance of multiple fingerprints and their events in neighboring countries in Afghanistan. The second goal of this study is to raise awareness of the causes of the disease and to prevent its spread. Because of the high incidence of this disease in the countries of the region such as India, Iran and Pakistan every year, it is considered necessary to be fully prepared for the risks of the disease and for the taking of health measures. Because this disease is universal, inherited and non-hereditary, it can create the number of people in the community. Afghans can be more vulnerable to kinship relationships with people in these countries

In this research, the issue of multiple fingerprints, including hereditary diseases, has been discussed so that the people of the country know about the complications, environmental factors and environmental factors that should not be considered in the main points during pregnancy. Like getting a radius, taking medicines without advising a doctor, using drugs, anxieties, breathing air and using unsuitable diets, the disease is developing in our country because of environmental factors and genetic factors in the disease. Better the community. The disease is treated in non-standardized ways in Afghanistan, such as fingernail fingers at inappropriate times, which are the cause of other dangers and illnesses.


Method

In this way, library research has been gathered using authoritative scientific resources and authoritative websites for comprehensive and new information on the subject, and the resulting information contains statistics on the incidence of disease in recent years in the world, Afghanistan and countries Is adjacent. As each country in the disease category is threatening most of the environmental conditions and lifestyle of its neighboring countries, this article has gathered the most information on multiple cases of India, Iran and Pakistan.


Result

In a review of several fingerprints through authoritative scientific sources and internet sites, multi-finger cases worldwide have been recorded in almost all countries, in particular Africa and Asia. Every 700-1000 people have 1 person with this condition. In Pakistan in the state of Lahore, there were about 162 multiple-fingered incidents in Pakistan in 2015, 154 events in Ceestan-e-Iran, 178 in the Indian state of Qom, and 97 in Kabul province.

Percentage of cases of multiple-event complications By graph shown. (Fig. 1).



References

Anthony J. F. Griffits,An Introduction to Genetic Analysis, 2015, p50

Alan Wright, Nicholas Hastie, Gene and Diseases, 2007,p157.

Benjamin A, pierce, Genetic A conceptual approach, 2015, p, 107, 701

Shubha R. phadke and V..H.Sankar

Peter D Tumpenny Sian Ellard, 2017, medical genetics

Nurmi, Deborah. "Polydactyly and Syndactyly." Encyclopedia.com. 2006. Web. <http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Polydactyly_and_Syndactyly.aspx>.

"Polydactyly - My Child Has." Children's Hospital Boston. Web. 27 Jan. 2011. <http://www.childrenshospital.org/az/Site1073/mainpageS1073P0.html>.

An Introduction to Genetic Analysis Eighth Edition Anthony J.F. Griffiths (U. of British Columbia) Susan R. Wessler (U. of Georgia) Richard C. Lewontin (Harvard U.) William M. Gelbart (Harvard U.) David T. Suzuki (U. of British Columbia) Jeffrey H. Miller (U. of California, Los Angeles, p46

The Practical Guide to the Genetic Family History Second Edition Robin L. Bennett p 91

Tara R.R.(2010) .Genetics for dummies, 2nd edn. Pp.54.

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